Trombone Intonation Mastery: ... and this volume approaches trombone-specific tuning issues in an organized, systematic way that will aid players of all ability levels. Yamaha YSL354. This pragmatic emphasis of tuning to others when playing in ensembles while still knowing the tendencies of the trombone and being able to play the instrument in tune was supported by the literature as well (Baer, 1980; Gray, 1989; McDunn, 1966). A trombone student is at a definite disadvantage when it comes to learning to play in tune. In future posts I will go through each type of trombone mute individually and talk about its quirks and uses, here I will explore the many things that are true of all of them: 1. The smallest sizes are found in small jazz trombones and … Running throughout this entire discussion is a thread of logic and related ideas that will enable both the teacher and per-former to deal with the problems in a knowledge-able and confident manner. A mute that removes the low frequencies and emphasizes the high can seem to project more than an open horn. Students do not really understand there are two tuning slides on a standard trombone. left for another article, tune the tenor trombone F-attachment tuning slide to the bottom of the staff low “F” in first position (all the way in). The fundamental of the overtone series does not exist as a real note on the trumpet. That said, some mutes will make the instrument decidedly softer: it’s impossible to play very loudly with a practice mute and, while penetrating, solo-tone mutes are not very loud. (Notes not addressed are generally acceptable) Use 4th position Lower 1st position Lower 1st position Raise 3rd position VF Raise 2nd position There are some notes on the instrument that will always be out of tune even if a good embouchure is being used, and it is in good working order and is tuned correctly. I like to think of the word “mute” as coming from the same root that gives us “mutation” and “mutant.” A change, or modification, not necessarily softer. Playing more advanced scales provides an excellent opportunity to work with alter… In future posts I will go through each type of trombone mute individually and talk about its quirks and uses, here I will explore the many things that are true of all of them: 1. The chart below has been circulating on the internet for some time, though it is clearly of an earlier provenance. The band can then easily see the connection between the changing pitch of the trombone and the length of the slide. Make an adjustment to your instrument, either by adjusting a slide, a peg, or whatever your instrument equivalent is. This takes a great deal of coordination and will hopefully get better and better with time. 1st slide pulled out about 1/4". The contributing factors to low brass intonation include, but are not limited to: Adjustments on the instrument (tuning slides) Embouchure shape Speed of airstream The player's ear Temperature of the instrument How the instrument was made And more! While they should do their best to give us adequate time we should do what we can to make the changes as quickly as we can. Trombone Intonation Chart This etude ©2004 Joshua Hauser • Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN * jhauser@tntech.edu Directions for use: 1) Find a partner to help you fill out your chart. If you had to bring the pitch down, then you were sharp. The pedal B-flat on the trombone is the fundamental. They can tire you more quickly (practice with them for extended periods of time to become accustomed to the resistance). In future posts I will go through each type of trombone mute individually and talk about its quirks and uses, here I will explore the many things that are true of all of them: Despite their name, mutes don’t actually mute. The Octave Partials (2nd, 4th, and 8th) All of the partials from the Overtone Series that produce and Octave of the Fundamental, are in tune. This technique can be seriously fast (especially when combined with the lap/knee) but requires the music to be just right to make it useful. Do not look at a tuner while you perform this exercise!!! (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, “Mute” is a misnomer. HOW TO TUNE A BASS TROMBONE. In the literature this is also called international standard pitch. Take an active interest in students maintaining their trombone. h�b```g``�g ��P#�0p4 ��C1#;� ��w�S�8`�\���D���\��L��>� �)lL��PU� � Q endstream endobj 17 0 obj <> endobj 18 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 19 0 obj <>stream I use a large backpack style bag in which I can fit a good number. The sound and response was excellent, I’m going to continue messing around with it to see if I like it as much as my Jo-Ral. So I really would have no use for this. Bass trombonists should tune their main tuning slide and F-attachment as above, then the D-attachment should be tuned to the below the staff “D” in first position. The trombone position chart at the front of their essential elements book (or other beginning book my superior decides to use that year) suffices. Proper operation of these The number one way to improve your tone quality is to listen, and that's true of intonation as well. 5. Thank you for the post. Start them in 3rd position, have them glissando up to 2nd, back to 3rd, down to 4th, and then back up to 3rd. Temperature affects intonation dramatically so it is important warm up your trombone before tuning it. This takes a great deal of coordination and will hopefully get better and better with time. using pitch tendency worksheet 5 Pitch bending / Tuning 1) understand and demonstrate an ability to bend pitch DISCOVER LEARNING: Asking a tro mbone player to play with a drone, ask S to put their hands up when they think note is in tune LECTURE: Trombone offers slide to show the instrument getting longer 2nd slide pushed in all the way. A trombone student is at a definite disadvantage when it comes to learning to play in tune. Warm up thoroughly before tuning 2. In the following diagrams we will point out the pitch tendencies of the Overtone Series. - Timothy Myers, Principal Trombone, St. Louis Symphony Orchestra I am very pleased to recommend Trombone Intonation Mastery by David Vining. Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. adjust tuning slide adjust valve slides (proportionate to length of the slide) alternate fingerings moving the hand slightly into the bell Sharp tendencies Trombone MEMORIZE THIS INFORMATION Flat tendencies Pitch centering on the trombone is fully reliant on the keen ear of the performer, as it works on a slide system rather than a system of valves. 1) Before tuning, make sure that your tuning slide is pulled out a half inch to start. 2. It weighs nothing, can be rolled up and put in your pocket, sounds exactly like a bucket mute and can double as a warm-up mute in a pinch. While some partials are played in tune (Fundamental, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 9th,) others play out of tune to differing degrees. However, the group of three notes below can be somewhat problematic when using "standard" slide positions because of where they are in the overtone series. This clinic will demonstrate common tuning problems while providing resources to improve the pitch within each section of your ensemble. Concert pitch may vary from ensemble to ensemble, and has varied widely over music history.The most common modern tuning standard uses 440 Hz for A above middle C as a reference note, with other notes being set relative to it. You’ll find that: Practice scales with various mutes (a different mute per day can give you some serious insight) and you’ll quickly figure out their tendencies. I have been searching for new material to use in my own practice and teaching, and this volume approaches trombone-specific tuning issues in an I also only teach years 7-12. When the instrument is about room temperature (72 degrees Fahrenheit), it is time to tune the trombone. cept of compromise tuning, the individual player's intonation tendencies, mouthpiece size, temperature, and several other variables are a part of this complexity. pitch tendencies. I have been searching for new material to use in my own practice and teaching, and this volume approaches trombone-specific tuning issues in an Trumpet Tuning Tendencies Relating to the Overtone Series with Solutions. How to tune your trombone and the importance of placing the slide accurately to play in tune. Simple enough: try to insert/remove the mute quietly and do so firmly. Each pitch is entirely alterable. There are some notes on the instrument that will always be out of tune even if a good embouchure is being used, and it is in good working order and is tuned correctly. h�bbd```b``*�Y ��D��� �̓A$�3�d$�+e�z�u10 �30�` �� � endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 33 0 obj <>stream The Conn 62 has an in-tune low C without worrying about going off the inner slides. on Trombone Mutes: The Basics (For Trombonists), Trombone Mutes: The Basics (For Composers). Pitch Tendency Chart Guide Trombone Basic Tuning Rules 1. 3) Give your chart and your tuner to your partner. Slide tuning also allows for a longer slide section. Many of the popular brands of trombones do not share the same intonation tendencies, particularly on the fifth partial. All mutes affect your pitch (which you should compensate for by manipulating your tuning slide). Metal clanking on metal or dropping to the floor at the wrong time can seriously ruin a piece. Figure out a good way to travel with mutes. Some manufacturers offer interchangeable bells. Adjust the tuning slide if pitch is sharp or flat. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997). I suggest finding a bag large enough to carry several mutes. Tendency Adjustment vs Use trigger and lower 2nd position Pitch Tendencies & Adjustments Trombone Use trigger and lower 1st position. 2 Joseph Labuta, Basic Conducting Techniques. Some notes, such as E (fourth space) appear in different places in different series. My various exploits on different brass instruments, from the tuba to the natural trumpet, have enabled me to identify what I believe are consistent tendencies in the character of the different overtones. While the trombone accessories are very helpful, they are also worth a lot of money. Learning how to use mutes is an important, yet forgotten skill. This can be remedied by daily tuning with the Cecilio 92-D chromatic tuner that it comes with. •Note #1: This tendency is dramatic enough to warrant adjusting the tuning slide, particularly in a long piece, and definitely through the course of a recital. Make mute changes as silently and securely as possible. Before completing the chart, tune to the pitches shown below. This is an instructional video teaching one how to tune an instrument, particularly the trombone. 2) Tune to a middle b-flat. Here is a document that will take you through a few key notes; first, the concert Bb scale, and then a few common problem notes for trombone. You can start by using a tuner. (I had left my bucket at home while on tour.) cept of compromise tuning, the individual player's intonation tendencies, mouthpiece size, temperature, and several other variables are a part of this complexity. The natural tendencies of the baritone, taking into account the most common valve combinations used and overtones based on those valve combinations, make the notes shown below naturally out of tune. Trombone- Intonation. Of course, then it's too long for the Bb horn. 4. The low B-flat is the first overtone, the next F is the second, the middle B-flat is the third etc. The natural tendencies of the baritone, taking into account the most common valve combinations used and overtones based on those valve combinations, make the notes shown below naturally out of tune. Many times, simple repetition will allow you to anticipate the change and pull it off. … … I make them tune their positions with a tuner and figure out where it works for them. As pretty much anyone in an orchestra or concert band can tell you, trombones have more than their fair share of tuning issues. If the dial is pointing left, push in the largest tuning slide. This is intended as a resource for trombonists. I especially like your Harmon mute comment! In many cases on trombone, alternate positions have opposite tuning tendencies from the typical position. The most important thing about alternate positions is to use them. Please be aware, however, that these adjustments are not always appropriate when performing with piano or other keyboard instruments, as these adjustments are based on just intonation, while pianos are tuned, “in theory,” according to equal temperament. 16 0 obj <> endobj 25 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5E824069C713472699CF4CBA05EC5270>]/Index[16 18]/Info 15 0 R/Length 67/Prev 137727/Root 17 0 R/Size 34/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Always use sufficient air support and play at a mezzo forte dynamic level. Trombone Intonation Mastery offers a concrete way forward. In the end it takes knowledge of each mute to know which will suit your needs. Small bore (No number): The original S.E. All of the partials from the Overtone Series that produce and Octave of the Fundamental, are in tune. most commonly made when tuning chords in large and small ensembles. Mutes are filters: they amplify, pass or attenuate (emphasize, do nothing to, or de-emphasize) certain frequencies. 4/��4=����\l�b; ����i-�]9�Ҽ�3ό>7�z.� &�OYɵ�?����F�]���У$��خ=���_ٶ. This technique can shave some time off the change. The tuning tendencies of each partial are the same on every brass instrument. Mendini by Cecilio Bb Tenor Slide Trombone. Often, alternate positions are the key to navigating tricky bebop or soli lines that would otherwise border on impossible. The Conn 62 has an in-tune low C without worrying about going off the inner slides. 3. The most common material is yellow brass (70% copper, 30% zinc), but other materials include rose brass (85% copper, 15% zinc) and red brass (90% copper, 10% zinc). Or if the note before the mute change or the first note of the muted passage is in first position you might be able to do the one-handed mute change: hold the trombone and slide in first position with one hand and grab and insert the mute with the other. - Timothy Myers, Principal Trombone, St. Louis Symphony Orchestra I am very pleased to recommend Trombone Intonation Mastery by David Vining. Do not use vibrato or try to manipulate the tuning note—play it straight. The other side of the coin, of course, is that the trombone, if played sloppily, can also be (and often is) the most out-of-tune instrument. Intonation Adjustments . Trombone Intonation Mastery offers a concrete way forward. Play the note again. Like a string player, he or she must learn where to “put” the slide for each note. If speed alone is not working (and you will be performing seated) try the knee/lap technique where you prepare the mute by putting it in the crook of your leg or in your lap. The list seems to go on forever! This is called the overtone series. Principle: Each instrument enters in corresponding order from lowest to highest and “fits” their sound inside the sound of the instrument before them. 3. Multiple colors and silver accents. While it will be different from one trombone to another, the notes indicated below are the ones that tend to be the most out of tune. Watch the video to the right that describes tuning on the trombone. Research indicates that the way in which school bands approach tuning and 1 Elizabeth Green, The Modern Conductor. Research indicates that the way in which school bands approach tuning and 1 Elizabeth Green, The Modern Conductor. While the bass trombone has had one valve to create an ease of access to that lower range for nearly 200 years, 2. in 1921 a double-valve contrabass trombone pitched in E-flat was patented in Germany. Playing any louder or quieter may distort the pitch. 1. That means, first and foremost, practicing the mute changes. Not all slide positions are created equal! Hard case. Brass instruments work by producing a distinct set of notes over top of a fundamental for each length of tubing. (May still be very sharp if u.igger is not properly tuned.) These are not the only out-of-tune notes on the instrument, but this group of six represents the notes that are most problematic. Play a second space C by playing trigger-1 and then tune the F slide using the C. Read the original publication here. A word of warning about alternate positions: as with any instrument, alternate fingerings have different tuning tendencies. Through the use of various tools (tuner, drones, and duets), trombonists have the means to discover their own tendencies and correct bad habits. It is inherently more difficult to find the proper notes on a slide than it is with valves, especially for those just stating out. Slide tuning also allows for a longer slide section. Until someone develops a collapsable mute there’s not much we can do. 4. •Note #2: This pitch tendency varies according to mass. Concert pitch is the pitch reference to which a group of musical instruments are tuned for a performance. “Mute” is a misnomer. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, This is called the overtone series. First position on a (standard B-flat tenor) trombone … All of these tendencies are dictated by the laws of physics, not by the trumpet itself. Adjustments for out of tune harmonics, an understanding of intonation tendencies among different trombone models in the fifth partial, as well as attention to the student’s ear training will dramatically improve your trombone section. These are not the only out-of-tune notes on the instrument, but this group of six represents the notes that are most problematic. H��Wm��F��_�PI��v�}! Mutes respond differently in different registers (how so varies from mute to mute). Euphonium Fingering & Tuning Chart is an interactive, color-coded fingering chart for the full-range of euphonium. 2 Joseph Labuta, Basic Conducting Techniques. Composers have a habit of writing impossible mute changes. A more in-depth analysis of tuning can be found in my article: 5 Steps to Playing in Tune. And thanks for the feedback, Jeff. Unfortunately, while the material is strong, the tuning facilities have a tendency to slide around. *If you are using an F attachment trombone, you should also tune the F slide after tuning the main tuning slide. Like a string player, he or she must learn where to “put” the slide for each note. Black (solid) noteheads indicate pitches that are so out of tune (flat) as to be unusable. If the needle and strobe are centered and steady, then your instument is tuned. Some notes, such as E (fourth space) appear in different places in different series. Intonation can and should be taught to students as soon as is feasible. 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