Alexander Joy Cartwright Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) was a founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. Cartwright set up a number of businesses and became a wealthy man as well as a civic leader. ." . This change made it safer for players to use a harder ball, which led to a faster, more exciting game. "The Doubleday Myth," The Bench Warmer,http://thebenchwarmer.tripod.com/doubleday.htm. The fabrication took on the status of received truth. The son of a marine surveyor. "Honolulu's Link to Baseball History." http://www.pubdim.net/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/C/Cartwright_Alexander.stm (October 4, 2002). Cartwright’s plaque in Cooperstown calls him the “Father of Modern Base Ball” and states that he: “Set bases 90 feet apart. Er wurde am … ." Cartwright's place in baseball history was ignored for many decades. Rounders become popular in the United States in the early 19th century, where the game was called "town ball", "base", or "baseball". When Cartwright's descendants heard about the Doubleday story, they registered a protest. ." Instead, he served as umpire and collected a six-cent fine from any player who used profanity. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Cartwright served as umpire in a game that saw the Knickerbockers lose 24-1. I bet many baseball fans didn't know that, Alexander Cartwright, referred to as a "father of baseball", is buried in Oahu, Hawaii. In 1845, Cartwright laid out the key rules of the game, including the dimensions of the field. Regaining his health and falling in love with the lush islands, he decided to stay. The Canadian-born physical education instructor James Naismith made an indelible mark o…, Rugby It is believed that Cartwright and his friends formed their baseball club in the early 1840s and named it after Manhattans volunteer Knickerbocker Engine Company. Neither Cartwright nor Doubleday can truly be credited with inventing baseball—which traces its roots back to a centuries-old English children's game known as "rounders"—yet it was Cartwright who founded the first official baseball club, the Knickerbockers, in 1845, and who published the first set of formal rules for the game in September of that year. No single person invented baseball. http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers_and_honorees/hofer_bios/Cartwright_Alexander.htm (October 3, 2002). American sportsman born April 17, 1820, New York City died July 12, 1892, Honolulu chief codifier of the baseball rules from which the present rules were developed. This was just the beginning of many games that would be played between … The Knickerbocker Rules are a set of baseball rules formalized by William R. Wheaton and William H. Tucker of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club in 1845. Yet it was not the Civil War general who laid down the groundwork for America's most popular game. During that time he helped to establish the game of baseball in that city. Cartwright's grandson gave the Hall of Fame his grandfather's diaries as well as news clippings and other items that substantiated the role of Cartwright and the Knickerbockers in codifying many of the game's most important rules. A kind of Johnny Appleseed of the sport, Cartwright helped spread the game as he traveled across the country by train, covered wagon, and foot. Alexander Cartwright. Cartwright was appointed secretary and vice-president of the club when it wrote down a formal constitution in September of that year. Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. □.  The Knickerbocker Rules. The rules also made the game less rough-and-tumble and more genteel, since they abolished the common practice of soaking or plugging—that is, hitting the runner with the ball to make an out. Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. was one of seven children born to a New York City sea merchant in 1820. Cartwright war verheiratet und hatte fünf Kin… ." Although the game of football as we know it today supposedly dates back to the nineteenth century, there is some evidence to support that…, Alexander ab Alexandro (Alexandro Alessandri) (ca. Omissions? Über Jahrzehnte galt Abner Doubledayals Erfinder des Baseballs; erst später wurde dies revidiert und Cartwright als „Vater des Baseballs“ ermittelt. The more genteel activities of tagging a runner with the ball, or getting the ball to a base before a runner reached that base, became the accepted ways to retire a runner. Alexander Cartwright is in the Baseball Hall of Fame for founding the sport as we know it, and writing the basic rules back in 1846. 19 Dec. 2020 . He attended school until age 16, when he left to become a bank clerk, and later, a volunteer firefighter. Cartwright was also active in local government. In all these pick-up games, a pitcher threw a ball, an opponent used a stick or bat to strike it, and then the hitter attempted to run to one or more bases. Encyclopedia.com. Peterson, Harold. For the first several years of their existence, the Knickerbockers usually played with eight men-three infielders (one standing near each base), three outfielders, a pitcher and a catcher. But during his lifetime he was never properly credited by organized baseball for his pioneering efforts. On March 1, he headed west, never to return to New York. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Travel Weekly (June 19, 1997): 29. Cartwright was named secretary and vice-president when the club formed in September of that year. Rugby is the only major sport in the world named not for the nature of its primary element, but for the place where the game is reputed to have…, Sources Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Naismith, James Though the game spread first through the northeastern United States, within 15 years baseball had taken root across the country. "Alexander Cartwright Those 1845 rules were taken in part from Robin Carver’s Book of Sports (1834) but were original in some important respects. In 1845, 25-year-old Cartwright—known to his friends as Alick—proposed that the group create an organized club. His plaque characterizes him as the "Father of Modern Base Ball." Among the rules established by Cartwright were the way teams record an out, the diamond shaped layout of the field, and the designation of fair and foul areas. One rule eliminated the circular field common to cricket and established fair and foul territory. Baseball Hall of Fame. In 1842 he married Eliza Ann Gerrits Van Wie, who hailed from an old Dutch family near Albany. At age 16, he began work as a bank clerk and played bat and ball games after hours with local volunteer firefighters. Other bylaws Cartwright instituted included the diamond-shaped field, the rules of fair and foul territories, and the 90-foot distance between each of the four bases. Alexander Cartwright Quotes. He was a member of the club’s rules committee in 1848 as well. Once the Knickerbockers had agreed upon their rules, they began advertising for games. But baseball historians dispute whether Cartwright and the other Knickerbocker rule makers really should be credited with these innovations. . and former sea captain, Cartwright grew up in lower Manhattan, where as a boy he played the common children's game known alternately as rounders, base ball, or town ball. Alexander Joy Cartwright war ein US-amerikanischer Buchverkäufer und freiwilliger Feuerwehrmann, der als Erfinder des Baseball-Spielfelds und der ersten modernen Baseball-Spielregeln gilt. Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. Ironically, the Knickerbockers lost the game, under the rules they had invented, by the decisive score of 23 to 1. Under the leadership of Cartwright and the other Knickerbockers, baseball soon became a favorite pastime for many young New York men. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Naturally, Cartwright taught baseball to the islanders and formed Hawaiian baseball clubs—which explains why the sport took hold in Honolulu even before it became established in cities like Philadelphia and Chicago. Records of the games and of Cartwright's play are unavailable. Detroit: The Gale Group, 2002. "Alexander Cartwright," Total Baseball,http://www.totalbaseball.com/history/people/pioneer/carta102/carta102.html. A major innovation legitimized tagging out a base runner rather than hitting him with a thrown ball in order to retire him; this made possible the introduction of a hard ball. He founded the Honolulu Fire Department and served as the city's fire chief for ten years. Cartwright later traveled west across the United States, spreading the game as far as California and Hawaii. However, the newspapers of the era carefully toed the official line because so much publicity had already been disseminated about Doubleday. Baseball, commonly called America's national pastime, was adapted from a British game known as "rounders." Biographical Information . Established 9 innings as game and 9 players as team.” Did he actually do those things? Notable Sports Figures. But as a leader of the Knickerbockers, the man who first set down rules in writing, and the game's first traveling ambassador, Alexander Cartwright fully deserves credit as baseball's founding father. Cartwright and the other Knickerbocker rule makers also outlawed the practice of soaking, because they considered it rude and ungentle-manly. It is Elysian Fields that takes credit for hosting the first recognized modern baseball game, between the Knickerbockers and the New York Nine, on June 19, 1846. Later on, he also became a volunteer fireman. His grave has been visited by many famous baseball players, including Babe Ruth. http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/cartwrigs.html (October 4, 2002). Contrary to the official myth about the origin of the sport, Alexander Cartwright (1820-1898) is the man who should be credited with doing the most to invent the modern game of baseball. Alexander Cartwright was born in New York City on April 17, 1820. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-Joy-Cartwright, National Baseball Hall of Fame - Biography of Alexander Cartwright, Lemelson-MIT - Biography of Alexander Cartwright, Cartwright, Alexander Joy Alexander Joy Cartwright - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In seiner Freizeit spielte er Baseball und verfasste für den New York Knickerbockers Baseball Club die Baseballregeln. If professional team sports in the United States epitomize the corporatization of athletics, the Olympics, at least in theory,…, Background Founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. Alexander "Alick" Cartwright worked as a clerk for a broker and later for a bank, and, weather permitting, played variations of cricket and rounders in the vacant lots of New York City after the bank closed each day. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Alexander ″Alick″ Joy Cartwright Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) was a founding member of the New York Knickerbockers Base Ball Club in the 1840s. The commission ignored facts about baseball's true origins because it was determined that a genuine American hero be credited with inventing the national pastime. In other games they used 9, 10 or even 12 players. A member of the ScaleLab Kite-surfing community. Alexander "Alick" Joy Cartwright Jr. is referred to as a "father of baseball". https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/alexander-cartwright, "Alexander Cartwright While working as a bank clerk and volunteer firefighter in New York, Cartwright started playing a popular game known as “town ball” or “base ball.” At the time it was simply a bat and ball played by locals with an informal set of rules that got passed along by worth of mouth. Alexander Cartwright formalized the modern rules of baseball. Cartwright never returned to the mainland to witness the spread of the game that he was so instrumental in popularizing. When Cartwright arrived in San Francisco, the Gold Rush was over; he stayed only six weeks, but in that short time he did much to spread the word about baseball in that city. Alexander "Alick" Joy Cartwright Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is referred to as a "father of baseball". It was adapted from rounders and gradually shaped into a distinctive American sport. And more than 60 years later, most Americans continued to believe that Doubleday was baseball's inventor. Finden Sie private und berufliche Informationen zu Alexander Cartwright: Interessen, Berufe, Biografien und Lebensläufe in der Personensuche von Das Telefonbuch "Cartwright, Alexander J." The field at Cooperstown is still called Doubleday Field. During the Civil War, troops played baseball during breaks in combat. Infolge des Goldrausches zog er nach Kalifornien und landete später auf den Hawaiiinseln, wo er sein weiteres Leben verbrachte. Since the Hall of Fame was set to open in 1938, the story was a convenient fabrication—it posited that the museum was located in the birthplace of baseball, and that its opening would be a centennial. Some of the rules attributed to Alexander Cartwright are: (1) a runner being touched with a ball, rather than hit with it to be considered out; (2) a ball being determined foul if outside the range of first or third base; and (3) one of the most debated of the “Cartwright rules,” the distance between the bases (paced out in a diamond-shaped format with forty-two paces from home to second base, and forty-two paces … In 1845 he joined the New York Knickerbockers, a club that played under what were called "New York rules", as distinguished from other clubs that played a … Tennis was one of the sports enjoyed mainly by the social elite and to a lesser degree by the middle class in late-nineteent…, In December of 1891, the administration at the School for Christian Workers in Springfield, Massachusetts, faced a problem. In the evenings, Cartwright joined other young New York businessmen, lawyers and doctors who got together to play a version of rounders. Cartwright transitioned to the team’s secretary in 1846 and then as the vice president in 1847 and 1848. Cartwright, The Doubleday Myth has been debunked many times. Encyclopedia.com. Union soldiers formed teams and Confederate prisoners picked up the rules of the game; when the soldiers returned home, they took the sport with them. "Alexander J. Cartwright," Hickok Sports,http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/cartwrig.shtml. Their first opponent was a team called the New York Nine. THE OLYMPICS On June 19, 1846, the teams traveled from Manhattan across the Hudson River to Hoboken, New Jersey, and played the first recognized baseball game at a park known as the Elysian Fields. The commission fixated on an apocryphal story involving a Civil War hero, General Abner Doubleday. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. In 1845, some members of that group joined with others and organized a new group, the Knickerbocker Club. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Runners were "put out" when fielders threw the ball and hit them; this was called "soaking." Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond-shaped baseball field , and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club . Alexander Joy Cartwright, (born April 17, 1820, New York City, N.Y., U.S.—died July 12, 1892, Honolulu, Hawaii [now in the United States]), chief codifier of the baseball rules from which the present rules were developed. Although he was an inductee of the Baseball Hall of Fame and he was sometimes referred to as a "father of baseball," the importance of his role in the development of the game has been disputed. To get there, both clubs crossed the river by ferry, then walked to Elysian Fields, a picturesque park and a popular holiday destination. After leaving school at the age of 16, he became a clerk at a bank. The dimensions of Madison Square, where the Knickerbocker Club most often played, necessitated the most important rules. When assembled for exercise, the President, of in his absence, the Vice-President, shall appoint an Umpire, who shall keep the game in a book provided for that purpose, and note all violations of the By-Laws and Rules during … A commission of high-ranking baseball officials was set up to determine who should be credited with inventing the game. He made his way across the Great Plains and taught the sport of baseball to locals in many places. The two most well-known stories of baseball’s creation — that of Abner Doubleday in 1839 and Alexander Cartwright in 1845 — are intimately connected: born together in the early 20th century and joined ever since. The dimensions of Madison Square, where the Knickerbocker Club most often played, necessitated the most important rules. The real history of the sport was largely lost, but the commission was eager to discredit any link to the British sport of cricket. The excess energies of a…, CHAPTER 7 So the public came to believe that Doubleday invented baseball. Encyclopedia of World Biography. The rules of the modern game were thought to be based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, in 1845, although this is disputed. 19 Dec. 2020 . In fact, the general's connection to baseball was so tenuous that most historians believe he never even attended a game. In March of 1849, the 29-year-old bank clerk, like so many other Americans, followed the California Gold Rush in hopes of making his fortune out west. "Time Trip." In 1938, Alexander Cartwright received the honor of being inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame for his contributions to the nationally played sport. Even today, only the most well-versed sports historians and enthusiasts recognize Cartwright as the true father of modern American baseball. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. . Encyclopedia of World Biography. The bylaws—some 14 written rules created by Cartwright and his club mates—transformed baseball from a folk sport, with rules passed down orally over the centuries, to a formal, structured sport. Thus was born the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, named after a disbanded firefighter company where Cartwright had once volunteered. Cartwright is generally credited with fixing the distance between bases at 90 feet (27.4 metres). Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/alexander-cartwright. He finally decided to return to New York, this time on a ship sailing across the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. The club adopted these rules in 1845, and they were used in the first baseball game between the Knickerbockers and the Nine’s in Hoboken in 1846, a fascinating fact about Alexander Cartwright. Updates? He was chairman of a club committee that prepared a set of baseball rules, which were adopted in September 1845 and apparently were first used in a game between the Knickerbockers and the New York Nine at Hoboken, N.J., June 19, 1846. Yet water travel did not suit Cartwright, who fell ill and disembarked at the Sandwich Islands-known today as Hawaii. He took a baseball with him, and as he crossed the country by train, wagon, and on foot he spread the word about the burgeoning sport and the Knickerbocker rules … Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond shaped baseball field, and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. The club played its first official game against the New York Nine at Elysian Fields on October 6, 1845. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Notable Sports Figures. There were few if any standard rules to the game, and the number of players on a team, the number of bases, and the distances between the bases were largely a matter of local custom or pre-game negotiations. 1861-1939 He served in several government positions, and helped to establish the islands' library system and one of its foremost hospitals. Alexander Cartwright was soon caught up in the fever of the gold rush, and left for California on March 1, 1849, never to see New York again. Doubleday myth. The man who did perhaps the most to formalize and codify modern baseball was one Alexander Cartwright, a New York City banker. The first diamond he laid out is now called Cartwright Field. ." Back in New York City, the Knickerbockers and other clubs continued to play, and the game soon became popular all around the country. The Man Who Invented Baseball. He never returned to the mainland United States to see just how popular his beloved sport had become—and in the world of baseball, his contribution was largely forgotten. The rules of the modern game were thought to be based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, in 1845, although this is disputed. In those years it was not played by factory workers (who had no time or energy after their 12-hour or longer days) but mainly by clerks, attorneys, physicians and businessmen who had time after work to play in the late afternoons. September 23, 1845: 1ST. "Alexander Cartwright Cartwright is also credited with giving Honolulu its first volunteer fire department, of which he served as chief for ten years. Yes, others were making their own versions of the game at the time, however, the Knickerbockers style of the game was the one that became the most popular. A surveyor by profession, Cartwright was one of the founders of the… Cartwright was one of four members who decided upon 14 written rules. In 1846, Cartwright and other members of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club played the first recognized baseball game in Hoboken, New Jersey, at a park called the Elysian Fields. He died in Honolulu on July 12, 1898— largely unknown to the outside world. Cartwright is often credited with establishing the rule that nine players compose a baseball team; however, the Knickerbockers were not consistent with their number of players, which, in a given game, ranged from 8 to 12. The enterprising man quickly grew prosperous, becoming one of the Honolulu's leading bankers and merchants, and managing the finances of Hawaii's royal family. Cartwright is generally credited with an innovative rule that legitimized tagging a base runner—rather than throwing a ball at him, which had been the previous rule. who wrote in his diary that he was one of the best Knickerbocker players, did not play in the first game. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Alexander Joy Cartwright, Jr. (April 17, 1820 – July 12, 1892) is referred to as a "father of baseball". Alexander Cartwright is considered by some to be the true father of the sport of baseball, although his story may be as much of a myth as that of Abner Doubleday inventing the game in the pastoral setting of Cooperstown, NY.According to The Baseball Book, "Cartwright, a surveyor, laid out the field with the bases 90 feet apart and drew up rules (including … Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander Corrections? Cartwright took a leadership role in suggesting to other members of the Knickerbocker Club that they write down a set of rules for the game they played. https://www.encyclopedia.com/sports/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cartwright-alexander, Kagan, Wendy "Cartwright, Alexander Doubleday, however, was never enshrined in the Hall of Fame. Adults in some colonies, such as Massachusetts, played a version known as "town ball." …1845, according to baseball legend, Alexander J. 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